Specializations

Graduate Specializations

A graduate specialization is an "interdisciplinary minor" that PhD students earn while completely their PhD program.  The following are merely those with obvious connections to the Sociology Degree.  For a complete list of all graduate specializations at MSU, go to the academic program catalog.

Animal Studies

Both of the following courses:

SOC 989 Topics in Sociological Methodology | Evaluation research. Experimental or comparative research methods.

SOC 840 Animals and Social Transformations | Historical examination of the human-animal relationships.

One of the following courses:

CSUS 823 Contemporary Issues in Animal-Human Relationships | Contemporary issues in animal-human relationships, including agriculture and food systems, local communities, and enclosed parks. Nature as a fluid network of relations including humans, non-humans, and technologies.

ANS 805 Animal Welfare Assessment | Multidisciplinary online computer-based instruction in animal welfare science and related issues including physiology, behavior, human-animal interactions, suffering and pain, ethics, health, assessment and standards, and economics.

LAW 565A Animal Law | A survey of animal legal issues including property status, zoning & cruelty.

Additionally one must complete 3 credits that focus on any aspect of the human-animal relationship that meets the interests of the student. A list of available courses can be found on the specialization website.

Cognitive Science

The following course:

PSY 863 Seminar in Cognitive Science | Contemporary issues, problems, theories, and data in cognitive science, seen from a variety of perspectives

Complete an additional 16 credits relevant to Cognitive Science, while 6 of these, chosen from the following, must be outside the student's major:

CSD 813 Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology of Speech, Language and Hearing | Structural and functional descriptions of the nervous system as it relates to communication sciences and disorders.

CSD 815 Acquired Language Disorders | Neuropathology, symptomatology, and speech-language rehabilitation of individuals with aphasia and related disorders.

CSE 902 Pattern Recognition and Analysis | Advanced topics in pattern recognition and computer vision such as Markov random fields, modeling and recognition of three dimensional objects, and integration of visual modules.

CSE 803 Computer Vision | Visual information processing problems. Human and machine vision systems. Image formation and transforms. Encoding, enhancement, edge detection, segmentation. 2D and 3D object description and recognition. Scene analysis. Applications.

CSE 841 Artificial Intelligence | Types of intelligence, knowledge representation, cognitive models. Goal-based systems, heuristic search and games, expert systems. Language understanding, robotics and computer vision, theorem proving and deductive systems, and learning.

CSE 845 Multidisciplinary Research Methods for the Study of Evolution | Techniques for engaging in multi-disciplinary research collaborations, including biology, computer science, and engineering. Students engage in group projects to answer fundamental questions about the dynamics of actively evolving systems including both natural and computational. Multi-disciplinary teams will learn to overcome discipline-specific language and conceptual issues. Experimental design, statistical analysis, data visualization, and paper and grant writing for multi-disciplinary audiences.

CSE 848 Evolutionary Computation | Investigation of evolutionary computation from a historical, theoretical and application viewpoint. Readings from the present literature, experiments with provided software on the application of evolutionary computation principles.

CSE 885 Artificial Neural Networks | Overview of neuro-engineering technology. Basic neural network architectures. Feedforward and feedback networks. Temporal modeling. Supervised and unsupervised learning. Implementation. Basic applications to pattern recognition.

CSE 941 Selected Topics in Artificial Intelligence | Topic such as second generation expert systems, human factors, natural language processing, speech understanding, neural networks, genetic algorithms and opportunistic planning.

LIN 824 Phonological Theory I | Major phonological theories, argumentation, and advanced skills of phonological analysis.

LIN 834 Syntactic Theory I | Theories, current issues, and research of the structure of sentences and structural relations among phrases. Methods of syntactic analysis and argumentation.

LIN 837 Advanced Studies in Semantics and Pragmatics | Selected topics in semantics and/or pragmatics, such as noun phrase interpretation, tense and aspect, conversational implicature, and negation. Advanced level analytical techniques.

LIN 850 Advanced Studies in Child Language Acquisition | Children's native language acquisition: research methods, crosslinguistic data, and explanations from linguistic theory. Topics such as learnability, parameters, innateness, narratives, individual variation, and bilingualism.

PHL 860 Seminar in Metaphysics and Epistemology | Selected topics in metaphysics, epistemology, and philosophy of mind.

PHL 880 Seminar in Philosophy of Science | Selected topics in the philosophy of the special sciences, in the meta-theory of science, and in the social studies of science.

PSY 801 Sensation and Perception | Biological and psychological approaches to the study of extraction, representation, and interpretation of sensory information. Review of major methodologies. Emphasis on vision.

PSY 802 Basic Cognitive Processes | Advanced exploration of methods used to study human cognition as applied to sensory processes, perception, attention, memory, and control of action

PSY 803 Higher Cognitive Processes | Advanced exploration of inductive and deductive reasoning, categorization, analogy, decision making, and problem solving

ZOL 822 Topics in Ethology and Behavioral Ecology |

Student must also participate in a research project outside of their major department, either by completing one semester of work in a laboratory project or by enrolling in an independent study course involving collaborative work with a member of the cognitive science faculty.

Complete a dissertation that reflects the integration of the student's discipline and Cognitive Science.

Ecological Food and Farming Systems

All of the following courses:

CSUS 811 Community, Food and Agriculture: A Survey l Philosophical, socio-economic, health and political issues related to food and farming in the United States.

CSS 442 Agricultural Ecology | Ecological principles in the design and management of agricultural ecosystems. Integration of ecological factors regulating crop and rangeland productivity.

CSS 892B Ecological Food and Farming Seminar l Experiential learning, and multidisciplinary and applied research in ecological food and farming systems.

One of the following courses:

CSS 424 Sustainable Agricultural and Food Systems: Integration and Synthesis | Biogeochemical and socio-economic aspects of food, fiber, and fuel production. Environmental impacts and social context. Experiential learning projects.

CSS 431 International Agricultural Systems | World production capacity for food, fiber and biofuel as related to soil, biology and climatic resources. Principles and case studies of sustainable systems presented from developing and developed countries. Emerging issues in agricultural globalization and biodiversity.

HRT 486 Biotechnology in Agriculture: Applications and Ethical Issues | Current and future roles of biotechnology in agriculture: scientific basis, applications. Environmental, social and ethical concerns.

ENT 479 Organic Pest Management | Theory, philosophy and application of organic pest management systems. Field trips required.

ENT 848 Biological Control of Insects and Weeds | Principles and practices in the application of natural enemies to control arthropod and weed pests. Identification and biology of beneficial species (parasitoids, predators, pathogens) and the ecological basis for their use in pest management systems.

One of the following courses:

ABM 400 Public Policies and Issues in the Agri-Food System l Objective alternatives and consequences of public policy in the agri-food systems. Analysis of economic implications for food and agribusiness farms, families, consumers, and society.

CSUS 823 Contemporary Issues in Animal-Human Relationships | Contemporary issues in animal-human relationships, including agriculture and food systems, local communities, and enclosed parks. Nature as a fluid network of relations including humans, nonhumans, and technologies.

CSUS 838 Participatory Modes of Inquiry | Participatory and action research literature across the disciplines. Epistemological and theoretical foundations, fields of application, points of emphasis for practice. Skill in building in reflexivity, surfacing assumptions, dialogue, and active listening.

CSUS 848 Community Based Natural Resource Management l Community based natural resource management in developing countries. Determinants of conservation, productivity, and income distribution. Interaction of human and natural systems, perceptions of scarcity, property rights, collective action, and governance. Policy tools for promoting conservation.

CSUS 854 Social Movements in Agriculture l Theoretical and empirical issues in social movements. History of the United States agrarian insurgency. Contemporary analysis of agrifood insurgency, grievances, organization, ideology, economic and political structures. Role of culture.

HNF 406 Sociological Aspects of Food l Factors impacting food consumption from a human ecological perspective. International and national food consumption patterns. Geographic, political, and economic aspects of food consumption. Food availability or distribution. Family structure, taboos, religion, and food-related health problems.

AFRE 861 Agriculture in Economic Development | Role of agriculture in economic development of low- and middle-income countries. Theories of agricultural growth. Policy issues. Case studies.

FW 858 Gender, Justice, and Environmental Change: Issues and Concepts | Issues and concepts related to gender, ecology, and environmental studies. Key debates and theoretical approaches to addressing environmental issues from a gender and social justice perspective. Gender and environment issues and processes from a global perspective.

GEO 410 Geography of Food and Agriculture | Spatial patterns of contemporary global agriculture and food systems. Human-environment geography of select agricultural practices and food systems. Effects of agricultural practices on natural and human resources.

Students must also take an international course approved by the students advisor for the specialization.

Environmental Science and Policy

Complete all of the following:

ESP 801 Physical, Chemical, and Biological Processes of the Environment | Interdisciplinary concepts in the natural sciences related to environmental problems. Ecology and human health.

Student must complete a 3-credit 800-900 level natural science/engineering course from a list of approved courses available on the Environmental Science and Policy website.

Student must complete a 3-credit 800-900 level social science/policy course from a list of approved courses available on the Environmental Science and Policy website.

Student must complete a capstone experience by one of the following:

ESP 804 Environmental Applications | Global, regional and local environmental issues. Use of systems approach to identify and solve environmental problems.

Participate in an internship approved in advance by the advisor for the program.

Write a white paper, approved in advance by the advisor of the program.

Student must attend monthly seminars as directed by the advisor of the program.

Environmental Toxicology

Complete the following courses:

CSUS 846 Law of Environmental Regulation | How the legal system regulates environmental matters. Case studies. Administrative Procedures Act. National Environmental Policy Act. Clean Air Act. Nuclear power, federal lands, parks, monuments, and the production, use and disposal of hazardous substances.

PHM 450 Introduction to Chemical Toxicology | Mammalian toxicology. Disposition of chemicals in the body, detoxication, elimination, and mechanisms of toxicity in major organ systems. Selected toxic agents.

Complete two courses from any of the five categories listed below:

Environmental Dynamics

CSS 455 Environmental Pollutants in Soil and Water | Environmental sources, physiochemical and biological processes, management of plant nutrients, heavy metals, organic contaminants, pesticides and pharmaceuticals in soil and water.

ENE 481 Environmental Chemistry: Equilibrium Concepts | Chemistry of natural environmental systems and pollutants. Equilibrium concepts and calculations for acid-base, solubility, complexion, redox and phase partitioning reactions and processes. Applications to ecosystem analysis, pollutant fate and transport, and environmental protection.

ENE 801 Dynamics of Environmental Systems | Principles of mass balance, reaction kinetics, mass transfer, reactor theory in environmental engineering.

ENE 821 Groundwater Hydraulics | Physical properties of porous media. Equations of flow in saturated media. Flow nets, well flow and parameter measurement. Transport processes and the advective-dispersion equation for conservative contaminants.

GLG 421 Environmental Geochemistry | Natural and anthropogenic processes affecting the chemistry of the environment with an emphasis on the water cycle. Equilibria and kinetic balances, biogeochemical cycling, contaminant chemicals, chemical origins, environmental health.

GLG 821 Aqueous Geochemistry | Controls on the chemical and isotopic nature of water (fresh, marine, brine) and its solutes. Data acquisition and synthesis. Chemical modeling and evolution of water masses.

MMG 425 Microbial Ecology | Microbial population and community interactions. Microbial activities in natural systems, including associations with plants or animals.

FW 897 Ecosystem Ecology and Global Change | Structure and function of natural ecosystems and their responses to global environmental change. Biogeochemical cycles, food webs, energy flow, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem management and restoration.

Economics, Policy and Law

AFRE 810 Institutional and Behavioral Economics | Relationships among institutions, individual and collective actions, and economic performance. Public choice, property rights, and behavioral theories of firms and bureaucracies

AFRE 829 Economics of Environmental Resources | Economic principles, theoretical models, and empirical methods related to environmental problems and policy interventions. Applications to air, land, water, forests, energy, fish and wildlife, and climate change, including in developing countries.

CSUS 425 Environmental Impact Assessment | Environmental impact assessment of proposed projects and plans. Regulatory frameworks and implementation issues.

Waste Management

ENE 483 Waste and Wastewater Engineering | Engineering and scientific basis and design of physical, chemical and biological methods for the treatment of drinking water and wastewater. Operation process selection and design.

ENE 487 Microbiology for Environmental Science and Engineering | Fundamentals of microbiology. Application of these concepts to environmental processes such as wastewater treatment, human health and bioremediation.

ENE 804 Biological Processes in Environmental Engineering | Engineering of microbial processes used in wastewater treatment, in-situ bioreclamation, and solid waste stabilization.

Analytical Chemistry

CEM 835 Advanced Analytical Chemistry II | Separations, molecular spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

CEM 836 Separation Science | Physical and chemical principles of separations, column technology, and instrumentation for gas, liquid, and supercritical fluid chromatography.

CEM 845 Structure and Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds | Structural and stereochemical principles in organic chemistry. Applications of spectroscopic methods, especially nuclear magnetic resonance, static and dynamic aspects of stereochemistry.

Mechanisms of Toxicity

ANS 407 Food and Animal Toxicology | Fate and effects of chemicals in the food chain. Impact on animal production. Residues in food products. Food safety assessment. Control methods.

BMB 960 Selected Topics in Biochemistry I | Selected topics in biochemistry with substantial student presentations.

FSC 807 Advanced Food Toxicology | Toxicology related to food safety. Metabolism of toxicants as influenced by food constituents, mutagenesis, and chemical carcinogenesis. Risk assessment.

Student must attend a minimum of six seminars in environmental toxicology.

Ethics and Development

Complete the following course:

PHL 452 Ethics and Development | Ethical issues such as racism, health care disparities, war, genocide, famine, agricultural intensification, economic liberalization, democratization, gender equity, globalization, and environmental degradation.

Complete at least 9 credits of electives from the following:

EC 810 Institutional and Behavioral Economics | Relationships among institutions, individual and collective actions, and economic performance. Public choice, property rights, and behavioral theories of firms and bureaucracies.

ANP 825 International Social Science Research: Methods and Praxis | Issues in the design and implementation of anthropological field research. Development of field research proposals.

ANP 831 Seminar in Cultural Ecology | Anthropological theories for understanding culture as system of mediation between humans and environment. Cultural ecological approaches applied to sociocultural change and stability.

ANP 436 Globalization and Justice: Issues in Political and Legal Anthropology | Anthropological perspectives on issues of justice linked to global forces of transnational capitalism, economic development, global governance, and international law

ANP 859 Gender, Justice, and Environmental Change: Methods and Application | Methods and case studies related to gender, ecology, and environmental studies. Methodological and fieldwork issues from a feminist perspective in international and intercultural contexts. Qualitative and quantitative methods for integrating social and environmental data.

FW 858 Gender, Justice and Environmental Change: Issues and Concepts | Issues and concepts related to gender, ecology, and environmental studies. Key debates and theoretical approaches to addressing environmental issues from a gender and social justice perspective. Gender and environment issues and processes from a global perspective.

GEO 418 The Ghetto | Analysis of the ghetto including its spatial organization and structure. Distribution of racial and ethnic populations. Emphasis on U.S. cities.

GEO 432 Environmental Ethics in Geography (W) | Ethical dimensions of environmental and spatial issues and associated public policies

GEO 454 Spatial Aspects of Regional Development | Spatial patterns and processes associated with regional development in selected world areas.

GEO 813 Seminar in Urban and Economic Geography | Review of research on selected topics in urban and economic geography.

GEO 872 Seminar in Human Geography | Research on topics in human geography.

HRT 486 Biotechnology in Agriculture: Applications and Ethical Issues | Current and future roles of biotechnology in agriculture: scientific basis, applications. Environmental, social, and ethical concerns.

PHL 440 Central Issues in Ethics | Twentieth-century discussions of universalization, utilitarianism, nature of a moral theory, moral language, relativism, skepticism, theory and practice, weakness of will, moral education, and justification.

PHL 450 Liberal Theory and Its Critics | Main contemporary figures in the liberal tradition and their critics.

PHL 451 Philosophy and the Black Experience | Philosophical issues about race and the black experience. Nature of racism, relationship of science to race, debates about identity, public policy and race.

PHL 456 Topics in Feminist Philosophy | Philosophical issues in a framework of feminist politics and critique. Standpoint theories, care/justice ethics, ontological status of genders/races, theories of power/domination, determinism/freedom.

PHL 840 Seminar in Value Theory | Major figures, themes, or periods in ethics or aesthetics. Topics vary.

PHL 850 Seminar in Social Science | Major figures, themes, or periods in social and political philosophy. Topics vary.

CSUS 826 International Development:Theory and Practice | Economic principles, theoretical models, and empirical methods related to environmental problems and policy interventions. Applications to air, land, water, forests, energy, fish and wildlife, and climate change, including in developing countries.

SOC 832 International Inequality and Development | Latin America. Effects of research results on change and development.

SOC 869 Community and Conservation | Use of experiential, participatory, field-based mode of inquiry to develop understanding of social and cultural issues associated with conservation. Understanding of different social positions and perspectives.

SOC 890 Individual Readings | Faculty-supervised readings in Sociology.

Students must present a final portfolio to the Director of the Specialization and a committee of affiliated faculty, which includes summaries of relevant field work, study abroad, conference presentations, and course work including one sample of their philosophical writing on an issue in ethics and development.

Gender, Justice and Environmental Change

Complete the following courses:

ANP 859 Gender, Justice, and Environmental Change: Methods and Application | Methods and case studies related to gender, ecology, and environmental studies. Methodological and fieldwork issues from a feminist perspective in international and intercultural contexts. Qualitative and quantitative methods for integrating social and environmental data

FW 858 Gender, Justice and Environmental Change: Issues and Concepts | Issues and concepts related to gender, ecology, and environmental studies. Key debates and theoretical approaches to addressing environmental issues from a gender and social justice perspective. Gender and environment issues and processes from a global perspective.

Complete two courses relevant to gender, justice, and environmental change. These courses will be selected, with advisor approval, after consideration of a recommended list of courses, furnished by the advisor, from fields such as agricultural economics, anthropology, forestry, fisheries and wildlife, political science, resource development, sociology, social work, and women's studies

Global Urban Studies

Complete the following courses:

GUSP 816 The World System of Cities | Modern global economic restructuring. Social, economic, and political impacts on world system of cities.

GUSP 975 Global Urban Research Practicum | Demonstration of student competence in urban theory and concepts, by writing, analysis, research, and evaluation via an original research project.

Complete two of the following courses. Each must be from a different sphere. Students may select courses from other departments or disciplines with approval of specialization advisor.

Political Sphere

PLS 811 Proseminar in Public Policy | Economic and political techniques for analyzing public policies. Utility and limitations of these techniques and their use and abuse in public policy analysis.

PPL 891 Urban Public Policy | Practices and methods in diverse policy settings examined under the tutelage of policy professionals.

Spatial Sphere

GEO 453 Metropolitan Environments: Urban Form and Land Use | Land use change, the physical fabric of the city, and the growth of regional centers in the American urban landscape. Issues associated with urban developments, practices and patterns in the 20th century and the resulting metropolitan form and function. Extensive use of geographic information software in spatial analysis.

GUSP 817 China and Globalization | Theoretical debates and empirical discussions on current social, economic, environmental, and spatial challenges facing contemporary urban China in an era of globalization. Comparative and thematic approach.

UP 800 The Sustainable and Climate Resilient City | Issues and current research in urban planning.

Social/Cultural Sphere

ANP 426 Urban Anthropology | The anthropological approach to urban issues. Cross-cultural perspectives on the informal economy, power, ideology, and community.

SOC 838 Comparative Urban Theory | Social theories of urban development and change in international and comparative perspective. Relationship of urban theory to urban experience, practice, and policy in different societies.

Economic Sphere

AFRE 991 Advanced Topics in Agricultural Economics | Advanced topics such as price analysis, finance, risk and modeling techniques, agri-food systems, environmental economics and management, and agricultural and natural resource development and policy.

EC 840 International Trade: Theory and Commercial Policy | Commodity composition of trade. Welfare and distributional effects of measures such as tariffs, quotas, and export subsidies. International economic policy. Regional and multilateral trade policy.

International Development

Complete two of the Core Courses listed below (Only one can be at the 400 level):

AFRE 861 Agriculture in Economic Development | Role of agriculture in economic development of low- and middle-income countries. Theories of agricultural growth. Policy issues. Case studies.

ANP 854 Archaeological Thoery | Archaeological theory and the nature of the archaeological record. Use of archaeological data to test social theories of past human behavior.

EC 410 Issues in the Economics of Developing Countries | Topics in development economics, such as growth, technological change, structural transformation, poverty and inequality, investment in human resources, trade, international capital flows, and the political economy of policy formation and governance.

GEO 454 Spatial Aspects of Regional Development | Spatial patterns and processes associated with regional development in selected world areas.

SOC 832 International Inequality and Development | Theories of cultural action and social change in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Effects of research results on change and development.

WS 403 Women and Change in Developing Countries | Effects of economic, political, and social change on women in developing countries. Interrelationships of gender, class, race, and nationality.

Complete at least four additional courses, of at least 3 credits each, which are relevant to the student's concentration within international development.

Pass a written comprehensive examination on the student's concentration within international development. With the approval of the department or school and college that administer the student's degree program, this examination may be incorporated into the comprehensive examinations required for the degree.

Women's and Gender Studies

Complete the following course:

WS 897 Seminar in Feminist Theories, Epistemologies, and Pedagogy | Foundational knowledge, theory, epistemology, and pedagogy in women’s and gender studies from a multi-disciplinary, global perspective.

Complete 9 additional credits with women and gender content selected from the following with at least 3 credits at the 800 level or above:

ANP 431 Gender, Environment, and Development | Relationship among processes of environmental change, development and gender differentiation. Anthropological perspectives. Case studies of major theoretical approaches. Gendered participation environmental movements, organizations.

ANP 432 American Indian Women | Role of women in a variety of North American Indian cultures, both traditional and contemporary, using autobiography, life history, historical biography, ethnography, and fiction. Interaction of Indian women and their cultures with Western European and American cultures.

ANP 859 Gender, Justice, and Environmental Change: Methods and Application | Methods and case studies related to gender, ecology, and environmental studies. Methodological and fieldwork issues from a feminist perspective in international and intercultural contexts. Qualitative and quantitative methods for integrating social and environmental data.

CJ 425 Women and Criminal Justice | Theories on women's victimization and criminality. Women's experiences as victims, offenders, and criminal justice employees. Laws and their effects on the rights of women in the criminal justice system.

CSUS 858 Gender, Justice, and Environmental Change: Issues and Concepts | Issues and concepts related to gender, ecology, and environmental studies. Key debates and theoretical approaches to addressing environmental issues from a gender and social justice perspective. Gender and environment issues and processes from a global perspective.

ENG 448 Seminar in Gender and Literature | Advanced analysis in literary works within the context of sexual differences or sexuality studies. May include women writers, feminism, masculinity studies, gay, lesbian, or transgender studies.

ENG 482 Seminar in Feminist Literary and Cultural Theory | Advanced analysis in feminist literary, critical, and cultural theory and its implications for reading and studying literature.

FLM 452 Studies in Film, Gender, and Sexuality | Study of films by women and about women, gender, masculinity, or sexuality.

HST 412 Women in Modern European History | Women in European society, economy, and politics since 1750, emphasizing the lives of ordinary women and the impact of industrial capitalism and the nation-state.

HST 420 History of Sexuality since the 18th Century | Changing gender roles, sex in the Victorian era, prostitution, pornography, birth control, emergence of homo- and heterosexuality, sex under fascism, the sexual revolution, contemporary conflicts.

HST 860 Seminar in Women's History | Political, social, and economic history of women. Major interpretations and research findings. Topics vary.

MC 482 Gender and Violent Conflict | Gender consequences of a range of violent conflicts and their resolution. Theoretical contours and policy implications of gendered conflict within and between states. Contemporary case studies.

PHL 456 Topics in Feminist Philosophy | Philosophical issues in a framework of feminist politics and critique. Standpoint theories, care/justice ethics, ontological status of genders/races, theories of power/domination, determinism/freedom.

SOC 831 Intersections of Class, Race, and Gender | Class, race, and gender in the U.S. Differential opportunities and choices in social and economic life.

SOC 833 Gender and Power | Theory and research on gender and sexual inequality in socially-based systems of production and reproduction. Global and national gender inequalities in selected institutional settings.

SOC 839 Structural Inequalities and Families | Macrostructural forces and family life. Role of class, race, and gender.

SOC 931 Topics in Structural Inequalities | Current research on socioeconomic class, gender inequality, racial and ethnic inequality, power structures, social conflict, urban dynamics, or social change.

SPN 876 Seminar in Gender Studies in the Hispanic World | Gender studies including feminism and masculine identities.

WS 403 Women and Change in Developing Countries | Effects of economic, political, and social change on women in developing countries. Interrelationships of gender, class, race, and nationality.

WS 404 Women and Law in the United States | Law in the United States as a vehicle for structuring and maintaining women's social roles, and for social change.